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Important Events in Modern Indian History- Sunday Subject Dose!

Government of India act (1858): - The government of India act 1858, marked the beginning of new chapter in the constitutional history of India. The act known as the act for the good government of India that has provided for liquidation of east India company, and transferred the powers of government, territories and revenues to the British crown.

Indian national congress (1885): - Indian political party was found in 1885 by A.O Hume. Its founding members proposed economic reforms and wanted a larger role in the making of British policy for India. By 1907, however, the congress had split in to moderate group led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who sought dominion status for India, and a militant section under Bal Gangadhara Tilak, who demanded self-rule. In 1920 the congress began a campaign of passive resistance, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, against restrictions on the press and political activities.

Partition of Bengal (1905): - Partition of Bengal was led by the viceroy of India Lord Curzon, through a royal proclamation. The partition of Bengal took place on October 16, 1905. That partition reduced the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal and separated the largely Muslim Eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. The purpose was to set up a communal gulf between Hindu and Muslims.

Swadeshi movement (1905): - The Swadeshi movement was under taken by the Indian nationalist leaders to remove the British from power and improve India’s economic conditions. The movement involved boycotting British products and using domestic products and production processes instead. The movement was strongest in Bengal and was also called Bande Matram Movement. The swadeshi movement began with the partition of Bengal by the viceroy of India Lord Curzon in 1905, and the chief architects of the movement were Aurobindo Ghosh, Bal Gangadhara tilak, Bipin Chandra pal, Lala Lajpat rai, V.O Chidambaram Pillai and Babu genu

Muslim League (1906): - Maulana Abul kalam Azad In December 1906 “All India Muslim league” was set up under the leadership of Aga khan, Nawab Salim Ullah khan of Dacca and nawab Mohsin-ul Mulk at Dacca. The league supported the partition of Bengal and opposed the Swadeshi movement and demanded the special safeguard for its community and separate electorate of Muslims.  

Morley-Minto Reforms (1909): - The Indian councils Act or Morley Minto reforms were passed by British parliament in 1909. This was an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate (to satisfy) the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians the governance. This act got royal assent on 25 May 1909.

Lucknow Pact (1916): - December 1916, agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader ball Ganga Dhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah; it was adopted by the congress at its Lucknow session. Through the pact, the two parties agreed to allowed overrepresentation to religious minorities in the provincial legislature. The Muslim league leaders agreed to join the congress movement demanding Indian autonomy.

Home Rule Movement (1916-1920): - The Home Rule Movement was the Indian response to the First World War in a more effective way than the response of Indians living abroad which took the form of the Gadar adventure.  The movement for independence under the leadership of Annie Besant was all over India, whereas Bal Gangadhar Tilak participation was limited to western India only. In 1920 All India home rule league changed its name to Saranya Sabha.

The Gandhian Era (1917-1947):- Indian National Movement had the third and final phase of nationalist movement known as the Gandhian era. During this period Mahatma Gandhi became undisputed leader of national movement. His principles of Nonviolence and Satyagraha were employed against the British government.

The Rowlett Act (1919):- The Rowlett act, which was intended to crush subversive movements, provided for stricter control of the press, arrests without warrant, indefinite detention without trial. The act moreover denied the accused the right to know who his accusers were or to challenge the evidence on which he was being tried, and required ex-political offenders to deposit securities and forbade them from taking part in any political, educational, or religious activities.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919):- Jallianwala Bagh massacre also known as Amritsar massacre, took place on April 13 1919 when troops of the British Indian army under the command of colonel Reginald Dyer fired brutally at Indian Crowd, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh Punjab. The civilian assembled to condemn the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satya pal and Saifuddin kitchlew.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920):- The non-cooperation movement was significant phase of the Indian Independence Movement from British rule. It was led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh. It aimed to resist British rule in India through non-violent means or “Ahinsa”.
Protesters would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and picket liquor shops.
The idea of “Ahinsa” nonviolence, and Gandhi’s ability to rally hundreds of thousands of common citizens towards the cause of Indian independence, were first seen on a large scale this movement through the summer of 1920.

Khilafat Movement (1920):- The Khilafat movement was organized by the Ali brothers – Mohammed Ali and Shaukat in protest against the humiliating sanction placed on the caliph (Khalifa) and Ottomoan Empire after the First World War by the treaty of severs. The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the British government to give better treatment to turkey. They were the first one to join Gandhi’s Non- Cooperation Movement, earlier than the Indian National Congress.

Chauri Chaura incident (1922):- The Chauri Chaura incident, which took place on February 5, 1922, in the Gorakhpur district of British India, is considered as one of the most prominent incidents of pre-independent India. During the non-cooperation movement, a group of protestors clashed with police and as result of this, policemen opened fired on the protestors. Provoked by this shooting incident, the demonstrators burnt down a police station, killing all its occupants. Resulting in the death of 22 or 23 policemen and three civilians, the incident also turned many against Mahatma Gandhi as he called off the Non-Cooperation Movement after the incident though a part of India’s freedom struggle, the incident is considered by many as tragic.

Swaraj Party (1923):- India political party was established in late 1922- early 1923 by members of the Indian national congress party notably Motilal Nehru, one of the most prominent lawyers in northern India and the father of political leader Jawaharlal Nehru and Chitta Ranjan das a nationalist politician from Bengal. The party’s name is taken from the term Swaraj meaning “self-rule” which was broadly applied to the movement to gain independence from British rule.

Simon Commission (1927):-The Indian statutory commission, commonly referred to as the Simon commission, was a group of seven British members of parliament under the chairmanship of Sir John Allsebrook Simon. The commission arrived in British India in 1927 to study constitutional reforms in Britain’s most important colonial dependency. One of its members was clement Attlee, who became committed to Indian independency by 1934 and achieved that goal as prime minister in the granting of independence of India and Pakistan.

Dandi March (1930):-Mahatma Gandhi was authorized by the congress working committee to determine the time, place and issue on which the civil disobedience was to be launched. He took the decision to break the salt law first, on which the British has imposed a duty, affecting the poorest of the poor.  He started Journey from his Ashram at Sabarmati.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931):-This pact was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and the viceroy of India, lord Irvin on 3th march 1931.
Features of this act following:-
1.       The congress would participate in the round table conference.
2.      The congress would discontinue the civil disobedience movement.
3.      The government would withdraw all ordinance issued to curb the congress.
4.      The government would withdraw all prosecutions relating to offenses other than violent one. The government would release all persons undergoing sentences of imprisonment for their activities in the civil disobedience movement.

The Government of India act (1935): - The government of India act 1935 was passed by British parliament in august 1935, with 321 sections and 10th schedules. This was the longest act passed by British parliament so far and was later split in to two parts viz. government of India act 1935 and government of Burma act 1935.

The government of India act,1935 derived material from four key source viz. report of the Simon commission, discussion at the third-round table conference, the white paper of 1933 and the reports of the joint select committees. This act ended the system of diarchy for establishment of a federation of India.

Quit India Movement (1942): - The quit India movement, or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India congress committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 august 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British rule of India. This was launched against the failure of the Cripps Mission.

Cabinet Mission Plan (1946): - The United Kingdom cabinet mission came to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India’s unity and granting it independence. Formulated at the initiative of Clement Attlee, the prime minister of the United Kingdom, the mission had Lord Pethick- Lawrence, the secretary of state for India, sir Stafford Cripps, president of the board of trade, and A.V alexander, the first lord of the admiralty. Lord Wavell, the viceroy of India, did not participate in every step but was present.

Interim Government (1946):- The Viceroy’s Executive Council became the executive branch of the interim government. Originally headed by the viceroy of India, it was transformed in to a council of ministers. The powers of a prime minister bestowed on the vice-president of the council, a position held by the congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (1946):- “On 9th December 1946, the first meeting of the constituent assembly was held in the constitutional hall (now the central hall of parliament house). Demanding a separate state, the Muslim league boycotted the meeting. Sachchidananda Sinha was elected temporary president of the assembly, in accordance with French practice.”

Mountbatten Plan (1947): - Mountbatten plan was also known The Indian Independent Act in which the parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The act received the royal assent on 18 July 1947, and Pakistan came into being on 14 august and India came into being on 15th august.

Partition of India (1947): - The partition of India was the division of British India in 1947, which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The dominion of India is today the republic of India and the dominion of Pakistan is today the Islamic republic of Pakistan.
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