Delhi's Polluted Air and W.H.O report - Seeker's Thoughts

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Wednesday, 12 December 2018

Delhi's Polluted Air and W.H.O report

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Delhi pollution: Air quality turns severe as smog envelops NCR

According to the authorities as the temperature continue to fall in the national capital, that residents are witnessing the worst air pollution of the season as air quality reached very poor levels.

The PTI report data, released by the central pollution control board shows that the air quality in Delhi has been recorded at 397 points, which is just three points below the severe level. The current air quality levels are also the highest pollution levels that have been recorded in this season.

The CPCB data also claimed that severe air quality has been recorded at seventeen areas across the national capital.

Heavy stubble burning over the last 24 hours along with calm winds has been attributed as the main reason for the deterioration of air quality, tracked by SAFAR, centre-run forecasting system.
1.24 million people died due to pollution in India, and tackling pollution should be the priority of the government. 
W.H.O report - According to the W.H.O study 98% children under five years of age in low-and middle-income countries like India are exposed to toxic air, study stated over 1 lakh children of the same age died because of air pollution in India in 2016.
Apart from WHO study another report by social work organisation Greenpeace presented a grim picture of India's pollution.
the report said three of the world's largest nitrogen oxide air pollution emission hotspots are in India. Delhi, Sonbhadra  in Uttar Pradesh, Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh and Talcher-Angul in Odisha are the biggest hotspot that have highest level of air pollution in the country.
the report noted that air pollution is one of the leading threats to child health, accounting for almost one in 10 deaths in children under five years of age. Air pollution can also cause childhood cancers, asthma, poor lung function, pneumonia and other types of acute low aspiratory infection, the report stated.
study investigated whether exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy was associated with low birth weight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child in Tamil Nadu.
Read about crop residue environmental hazard
Introduction to the problem
Nine out of 10 people around the world breathe polluted air, according to a report released by the World Health Organization.
About 7 million people die each year due air pollution, the report said.  As air pollution levels remain dangerously high in many parts of the world more than 90% of pollution-related deaths occur in low-middle -income countries, mainly in Asia and Africa.

Air pollution threatens the poorest and most marginalized people around the world. Breathing polluted air can lead to heart disease, a stroke and lung cancer.


How air pollution can be measured?

Air pollution is measured by how many grains of “particulate matter” (PM) are in a cubic meter (the area of air where the particulate matter is high). PM is broken down into two groups: PM10 AND PM2.5, which are measurement of the particle in micrometres.


 These are small particles floating in the air. And come from lot of sources, such as dust blown up from the wind, coal particle from power plant, home heating, car exhaust, and pollen from plants.

These very small particles can be very dangerous  because then can  penetrate deep into human lungs, and some can even enter  in to bloodstream.
Strategy the world has taken to combat air pollution-


The world bank – The world bank group works with developing countries and development partners to reduce pollution, implement proper waste management, improve water and air quality, and promote clean development for healthier lives and better economic opportunities.
 World Bank commitments to pollution management and environmental health has more than US 8.3 billion. World bank established a multi-donor trust fund for pollution Management and Environment Health to promote more systematic and effective responses to deadly and costly air pollution in selected low-income countries including – china, Egypt, India, Nigeria, south Africa and Vietnam.

The bank aids in several areas that covers:

1-      Improving indoor/outdoor air quality.

2-     Improving water quality, both freshwater and in oceans.

3-     Waste management and remediation of contaminated sites.

4-     Promoting environmental sustainability through cleaner production and pollution prevention.


 India’s pollution severity
New Delhi remains the most polluted city in the world. Air pollution from cooking with polluting fuels are the major causes of air pollution.

According to a study the road dust from paved and  unpaved roads contributed the largest share to air pollution, followed by residential sources, transport and vehicular pollution, industrial source and power. “Particulate Pollution” is a major problem for Delhi specially during winter and fire events festivals.

 What measures India has taken to prevent Air pollution?

Indian government has taken several initiatives including the notification about National Ambient Air Quality Standards, formulation of Environmental Regulations, setting up monitoring networks.
 Several flagship programmes are active to curb air pollution. Moreover, government has decided to skip one stage BS V and migrated BHARAT STAGE BS VI from 2020 in entire nation but for delhi the BS VI norm will be implemented from 2018 itself. BS VI grade fuel will help (both petrol and diesel) to fight the growing pollution as these fuels are the less pollutant blended. It is a part of concerned efforts of government to reduce vehicular emissions and improve fuel efficiency with an aim to reduce carbon and keep environment healthy.

What is “Green Mass Movement” against pollution?

Delhi government led green ‘mass movement’ against pollution by planting trees. As trees play important role to curb air pollution and give fresh air to breath. the event claimed to be  the biggest ever plantation movement in the history of the capital city. More than 5 lakh trees sapling were planted at 643 locations across Delhi with the support of students, local citizens and resident welfare associations. Delhi is currently fighting from severe air pollution even though 70%of Delhi’s pollution is attributed from external region.

Conclusion

Air pollution in India is one the major problem, India is facing severe air pollution especially in big cities. There is constant rise in particulate matter causing several types of deadly diseases. Government should find out the ways to curb air pollution as the mass involvement . There is a need to involved public participation. Environment issues are best handled with the participation of all citizens at the national level as well at global level. States should facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available severe harmful effect of actions should be published through various marketing strategies where people notice the message more. Government should approach several NGO’s and all medium schools to spread awareness by campaigning across the nation. Country like India where literacy rate is still low, generally, people are not aware about pollution and its bad affect on health.