Unemployment - and Female Labour Participation - Seeker's Thoughts

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Unemployment - and Female Labour Participation

Introduction :- India’s market are being ignored 

Unemployment in India have always been an issue of debate, and also most recently about the declining female labour force participation rate in India

Apart from the falling female labour participation, the major issues that the structural transformation process, which began after 2004-05 periods, has stalled since 2011-2012 and rising youth unemployment, particularly among educated boys and girls. 





Reasons behind for falling female labour participation 
Female participation in workplace has been declining since 1977, and continued falling to 2015-16. According to Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), a think tank, only women suffer when there’s an employment problem, while jobs for men increased by 0.9 million, 2.4 million women fell off the employment map in first four months of 2017. 



The trend for this year points to a continuing story of Indian women increasingly clocking out of the workplace. It might not seem like it at first glance. You see Women employed everywhere, in ad agencies and start-ups, on construction sites and in fields, in shops and restaurants, in schools and anganwadis, flying airplanes and driving taxis. However, the data contradict about recruitment. 
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First, female enrolment at secondary level (15-16 years old) rose to 85% within matter of five years (to 2015). Second, as these older girls entered secondary school, younger siblings care in the family had to be now performed by adult women rather than the eldest girl. In the household income with rapid growth in agriculture, the demand for female women increased. 
A very important reason for rural female workforce falling 2004-05 was the decline in household level animal farming, which has rationally been performed by women. 



Growth in youth unemployment 



India's unemployment crisis, 1.3 million youth need jobs every month, eight million a year according World Bank Report. India’s employment rate has been declining due to women leaving the job market, a report published on 15 April, 2018. 
India’s employment rate was 52% in 2015, below Nepal 81%, Maldives 66%, Bhutan 65% and Bangladesh 60%. 
Its very tragic to see unemployment among educated youth. The mounting educated youth age group 15 to 29 years unemployment in recent years is an outcome of the slow growth of jobs. At the all-India level, the unemployment rate among youth with secondary education and with graduate- level technical education has increased, while in several sectors rate of unemployment has a little declined. 

While between 2005 and 2012 the number of youth and (adults) engaged in agriculture had fallen for the first time in India's history, the opposite happened after 2012, about 24 million youth joined the agriculture sector during 2011-12 and 2015-16 even as agriculture output growth slowed. At the same time, the number of youths in the manufacturing sector declined by 3 million. This could be a cause of distress among youth. 

Construction and services sectors have registered growth of jobs, youth employment in construction increased by 4.6 million during 2011-12 and 2015-16, the overall growth of construction jobs declined. 



Causes of unemployment among youth 
Large number of youths in India are unemployed, there several causes of staying unemployed. Doing job in foreign country is kind of craze among youth nowadays, young people don’t find India worthy to staying or doing job here, when it's about government jobs there is a huge competition due to population and to get government job, while in India government jobs are mostly occupied by older people. 

Other reason is youth are least concerned about get in job and more in art sectors – like singing, playing instruments, dancing etc. etc. Well skilled youth are not able to get skilled relevant job easily in the country, other reason is least savings Indian companies are very much hard to handle as they put extra work load on the employee with less salary with least incentives.  



A way forward 
Urgent measures should be taken to improve female work participation and as well as to improve male participation, Indian government should check on private and government companies and ask them to open doors for youth, skilled relevant should be given to youth. Programmes like skill India and other flagship programmes are useless when Indian youth are not able to get jobs. There is no point to skill people if companies are not willing to get them job and even if they are recruiting, they don’t give reasonable pay. So, government give better opportunity to FDI companies however Indian youth lagged behind than other developing nation in unemployment.