The Modern Slavery - 40 Million People are affected World- Wide - Seeker's Thoughts

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Tuesday, 4 December 2018

The Modern Slavery - 40 Million People are affected World- Wide


Introduction: - International Day for the Abolition of Slavery


The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery, 2 December, marks the date of adoption, by United Nation General Assembly, convention for the suppression of the Traffic in persons and of the exploitation of the prostitution of other (resolution 317(IV) of 2 December 1940)

What are the focus areas?

The focus of this day is on eradication contemporary forms of slavery such as trafficking in persons, sexual exploitation, and the worst forms of child labour, forced marriage, and the forced recruitment of children for use in armed conflict.

International Labour Organization’s Report
According to the International Labour Organization, there are currently an estimated 21 million forced labour victims worldwide, creating US150$ billion in illegal profits in the private economy each year.
ILO has adopted a new legally binding protocol designed to strengthen global efforts to eliminate forced labour, which is set to enter into force in November 2016.

What campaigners found who led to the abolition of slavery campaign?
When the campaigners led to the abolition of slavery in British colonies found anti-slavery society (today anti-slavery international), they found that in 2017 there are still 40 million people in slavery worldwide.
So while celebrating the success in fighting slavery, campaigner threw a light on the daily reality experienced by so many people around the world. People are abused, exploited, and denied the freedom.

History
Slavery has existed in different forms since ancient times. Despite being outlawed in most countries and the abolished movement in the 1800s, the crime persists in ways more pervasive and complex than ever.

Modern slavery
Modern slavery refers to situations where one person has taken away another person’s freedom- their freedom to control their body, their freedom to choose to refuse certain work or to stop working- so that they can be exploited. Freedom is taken away by threats, violence, coercion, abuse of power and deception.
Modern slavery is a plain English term. It is not a legal definition.
Different countries use different legal technologies, but “modern slavery” includes the crimes of human trafficking, slavery and slavery-like practices such as servitude, forced labour, forced or servile marriage, the sale and exploitation of children, and debt bondage.
Therefore, it is understood that Slavery is an extreme form of inequality and exists within a competing matrix of political, economic, societal, cultural and religious pressure. Modern slavery is bound to some of the most complex issue facing around the world.
How religions promote slavery in different forms?
The critical issue of slavery in religion is an historical research into the relationship between the world’s major religions and the practice of slavery. Slavery could be a result of being a prisoner of war, owing to a debtor being sold into slavery.
Notably: - historically slavery has been supported by several major religions.

Sexual slavery- Not Morally Wrong by the religious beliefs
Several cultures are thought to have had more female slaves than male slaves. Enslaved women are given many tasks and one of the most common was working as a domestic servant.

Some female slaves were forced to become sex workers: not prostitute, as this is “forbidden in religion”, but concubines. Concubines were women who were sexually available to their master, but not married to him. Where a man could have as many concubines as he could afford.
Being a concubine did have some benefits: if a slave woman gave birth to her owner’s child, her status improved dramatically- she could not be sold or given away, and when her owner died she became free. The child was also free and would inherit from their father as any other children. Concubinage was not prostituted in the commercial sense both because that was explicitly forbidden and because only the owner could legitimate have sex with a female; anyone else who has sex with her was guilty of fornication.

 Nature of Concubinage
Writers disagree over the nature concubinage.

Some argue that it was seriously wrong in that

1-      It was just slavery.

2-     It breached human rights.

3-     It exploited women.

4-     Women could be bought and sold, or given as gifts.

5-     It involved compulsory non-consensual sex- which would nowadays be called ‘rape’

6-     It reinforced male power in the culture.

Early opponents
The idea that slavery should be abandoned began to be seriously discussed in the 16th century. The Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) banned the slave trade in his Indian territory.
The Muslim leader and reformer Nasr-al-din denounced slavery to the people of Senegal in the 1670s and banned the sale of slaves to Christian there, undermining the French trade in slaves.
In some countries, slaves who held high rank demonstrated that slaves were perfectly capable of playing any role in the society if they were freed. Egypt had even been ruled by a slave dynasty for more than century. These traditions slowly changed thinking about slavery among people, and gradually created a climate in which the pressure for abolition could build.

8 million people live in ‘modern slavery’ in India, says the report
The Global Slavery Index 2018 estimates that on any given day in 2016 there were nearly 8 million people living in “modern slavery” in India.

Among 167 countries, India ranked 53 with North Korea at the top of the list with 104.6 per 1,000; the government has strongly contested the claim on grounds that its parameter was poorly defined.

Forced Labour and Debt bondage in India
Bonded labour is defined in the bonded labour system (Abolition) act 1976 as a system of forced or partly forced labour in which a debtor gets an advance of cash or kind in return in return for his labour or service to the creditor.

Forced labour and debt bondage are common practice across all the economic sectors in India. It is mainly found in certain industries such as brick kilns, carpet weaving textile, and garment manufacturing, embroidery, manual scavenging, and agriculture.
Sadly the most affected people of debt bondage are the members of the marginalized caste, tribes, religious minorities, refugees and migrant workers. There are also instances of Nepal and Bangladeshi migrants being subjected to forced labour in India through debt bondage and recruitment fraud.

The international day for the abolition of slavery and its importance
This day reminds people that modern slavery works against human rights. Many people use the International Day for the Abolition slavery as an opportunity to share their perspective in writings through poetry, opinion pieces, interviews, features articles, short stories, and other published material. Classrooms may review the history of the slave trade, its evolution and changes it has undergone through to modern times.

United Nation’s Efforts to Abolish Slavery
The United Nations is committed to fighting against slavery and considers bonded labour, forced labour, the worst forms of child labour and trafficking people as modern forms of slavery. Some sexual exploitation. These types of slavery are global problems and go against article four of the universal declaration of human rights, which states that “no one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Conclusion
There is a need to focusing on capturing and prosecuting the criminals, worldwide governments should focus on addressing the root cause of such activities. The government should stop the penalization of trafficking victims such as restrictions on their travel and increase effective prosecution and convictions for all forms of trafficking. To achieve sustainable development goals, countries should get rid of all form of slavery. Each and every sector human should get human rights, therefore It is high time that the people around the world should get aware of their rights in order to make the world a better place  to live freely.

- Alveera Khan 
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