Mental illness - Don't Ignore these Symptoms! - Seeker's Thoughts

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Mental illness - Don't Ignore these Symptoms!

Mental illness -the most ignored disease

One in four people in the world will be affected by mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives. Around 450 million people currently suffer from such conditions, placing mental disorders among the leading causes of ill-health and disability worldwide.
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Nearly two-thirds of people with known mental disorder never seek help from a health professional. Stigma, discrimination, and negligence prevent care and treatment from reaching people with mental disorders, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Due to ignorance, there is little or no understanding about mental illness.

Mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders increase an enormous global disease burden that leads to premature mortality and affects functioning and quality of life. 
If left untreated, mental disorders can result in a worse scenario and can trigger other diseases such as tuberculosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.
There are different conditions that are recognized as a mental illness. The more common types include:

Anxiety Disorders: People with anxiety disorders respond to certain objects or situations with fear. Physical signs of anxiety and panics, such as rapid heartbeat and sweating can be visible as well. 
An anxiety disorder diagnoses the person’s response for the situation and his/her control. If the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with normal functioning- the person needs to visit the doctor. 
Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias.
Mood Disorders: These disorders are also called affective disorders, involve persistent feelings of sadness or periods of feeling overly happy, or fluctuations from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. The most common mood disorders are depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia disorder.
Poverty and Brain

Psychotic Disorders: Psychotic disorders involve distorted awareness and thinking. Two of the most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations – the experience of images or sound that are not real, such as hearing choices—and delusions, which are false fixed beliefs that the ill person accepts as true, despite evidence to the contrary.

Eating Disorders: Eating disorders involve extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors involving weight and food. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are the most common eating disorders.
Impulse control and addiction disorders: People with impulse control disorders are unable to resist urges, or impulse, to perform acts that could be harmful to themselves or others. Pyromanias (starting fires), kleptomania (stealing), and compulsive gambling are examples of impulse control disorders. Alcohol and drug are common objects of addictions. Often, people with these disorders become so involved with the objects of their addiction that they begin to ignore responsibilities and relationships.
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Personality Disorders: people with personality disorders have extreme and inflexible personality traits that are distressing to the person and/or cause a problem in work, school, or social relationships. 
In addition, the person’s patterns of thinking and behavior significantly differ from the expectations of society and are so rigid that they interfere with the person’s normal functioning. An example includes antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and paranoid personality disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: people with OCD are plagued by constant thoughts or fears that cause them to perform certain rituals or routines. 
The disturbing thoughts are called obsessions, and the rituals are called compulsion. An example is a person with an unreasonable fear of germs who constantly washes his or her hands.

Post-traumatic stress disorder: PTSD is a condition that can develop following a traumatic and/or terrifying event, such as asexual or physical assault, the unexpected death of a loved one, or a natural disaster. 
People with PTSD often have lasting and frightening thoughts and memories of the event and tend to be emotionally numb.

Global statistics on mental health are poorly defined, measured and understood
The true prevalence of mental health disorders globally remain poorly understood; diagnosis statistics alone would not bring us close to the figure- mental health is typically underreported, and under-diagnosed. 
If relying on mental health diagnoses alone, prevalence figures would be likely to reflect healthcare spending (which allows for more focus on mental health disorders) rather than giving a representative perspective on differences between countries; high-income countries would likely show significantly higher prevalence as a result of more diagnoses.

The data presented in our entries is published by the Institute of Health Metrics & Evaluation, Global Burden of Disease study. It’s based on a combination of source, including medical and national records, epidemiological data, survey data, and Meta-regression models.

Education & employment are strongly linked to mental health

The risk factors for mental health and substance use disorders are complex. It is rarely the case that a mental health disorder can be attributed to a single factor or cause. 
There are a number of environmental, social and economic scenarios that appear to relate to the prevalence of mental health disorders. Level of education appears to have an important link to depression prevalence; but even stronger than this is the status of employment.

Depression in adults aged 25-64 years old, differentiated by the highest attained education level and status of employment. Overall the depression tends to be lowest amongst groups who have undertaken tertiary (university or college). This is largely consistent across countries, but also across employment categories. 
In contrast, depression prevalence is typically highest in those who did not undertake upper secondary education. But importantly, this gap between educational levels appears to close – and in some cases, disappear when we consider only those who are employed. 
Rates of depression in those with below upper secondary levels education that is employed are comparable to those of other educational levels.
A range of studies has also shown a strong correlation between unemployment as well as job insecurity and increased risk does depressive symptoms.

Poor Mental Health also Impacts on economic development
Mental illness impacts economic development through lost production and consumption opportunities at both the individual and societal level. 
It is estimated that the lost economic output caused by untreated mental disorders as a result of diminished productivity at work, reduced rates of labor participation, foregone tax receipts, and increased welfare payments amounts to more than 10 billion days of lost work annually – the equivalent of US$1 trillion per year.

Countries are not prepared to deal with this often “invisible” and often-ignored challenge. Despite its enormous social burden, mental disorders continue to be driven into shadow by stigma, prejudice, or fear of disclosure because a job may be lost, social standing ruined, or simply because health and social support services are not available or are out of reach for the afflicted and their families.

How India is working on strengthening the fight against mental illness?

The mental illness is the most neglected and tabooed aspect of Indian health care system. To address the burden of mental disorders, the government of India has undertaken the following steps:

1-      The mental healthcare Act, 2017 provides that the appropriate government shall take all measures to ensure that the government officials including police officers and other officers of the government are given periodic sensitization and awareness training.

2-     National mental health program is under implementation since 1982. District mental health program is under implementation in 517 districts of the country for detection management and treatment of mental disorder/illness.

3-     Three central mental health institutions namely national institute mental health and Neuron science, Bangalore, Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi regional institute of mental health, Tezpur and central institute of psychiatry, Ranchi have been strengthened for augmenting the human resources in the areas of mental health and to provide quality mental health services in the country.

4-     Funds are provided to each district under the DMPH for sensitization training community health workers and elected representative of the community at district hospital/community health center for awareness generation regarding early signs and community health-seeking behavior for mental illness.

5-     To increase the number of qualified mental health professionals in the country, the government, under the NMHP, is implementing manpower development schemes for the establishment of centers of excellence and strengthening/establishment of the postgraduate department in mental specialties.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is regularly reviewing and monitoring the functioning of the central mental health institution and the institutions supported under manpower development schemes of NMHP.

Mental Health Actions Plan 2013-2020

WHO’s mental health action plan is a number of evidence-based, intersectoral strategies have been effective in promoting, protecting and restoring mental health. 
WHO visibly increased the attention to mental disorders at the national and international levels including migration and humanitarian aid; social inclusion and poverty reduction; and human rights protection and universal health coverage?
 Strong leadership is needed to make mental health a priority, to commit to innovative and quality services, more social connectivity is mandatory. The government should introduce programs that promote and protect mental well-being into general health services, school curricula. Fight against mental illness still a tough task. Next steps include enhanced international cooperation of alternate models of mental health financing,

Bhim _UPI - 526683880@icici


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