United Nation&'s sanction against central African republic CAR? - Seeker's Thoughts

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United Nation&'s sanction against central African republic CAR?

Chaos in Central African Republic

The Central African Republic has experienced several periods of armed conflict since its independence in 1960. The CAR ratified the Rome statue in 2001 and acceded to the agreement in privileges and immunities in 2006. In 2007 the International criminal court opened an investigation (CAR I) into alleged crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in the CAR from 2002-3.
 In light of renewed violence, the International criminal court prosecutor opened a second investigation (CAR II), this time looking at alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity since 1 august 2012.
Sanctions Against Central African Republic

The United Nations Security Council has adopted a resolution to extend sanctions against the Central African Republic for another year.
Resolution 2454, adopted unanimously on January 31, 2019  by the 5- member council, decides to renew the sanctions regime- an arms embargo, travel ban and asset freeze till January 21, 2020.
The French- drafted resolution says the council intends to establish benchmark by April 30 on security sector reform, the demobilization and reintegration of combatants, and the management of weapon and ammunition.

Exempted Countries 
The panel of experts said in its latest report that it granted several exemptions to allow shipments of weapons from France, Russia, china, the United States and Belgium for CAR’s army.
It also decided to extend the mandate of the panel of experts, which  would help the Security Council with the implementation of the sanctions, until February 29, 2020.      
The resolution envisaged the establishment of key benchmarks in various sector that could help the security council review the arms embargo on the Central African Republic government by April 30, 2019.

What is the reason behind sanction against central African republic CAR?
The UN imposed sanctions on the Central African Republic in 2013, in response to the continuing deterioration of the security situation in the country, by UN Security Council Resolution 2127.
 The sanction comprised an arms official ban on trade, which was supplemented on 28 January 2014 by targeted asset freezes and travel bans against people undermining the peace and stability of the Central African Republic or violating the ban on arms trade.

1 – Engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability, or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or hamper the stabilization and reconciliation process or that fuel violence.

2 – Acting in violation of the arms trade ban, or having supplied arms to armed groups or criminal networks in CAR, or having been the recipient of arms or any related material or training related to the violent activities of armed groups or criminal networks in the CAR.

3- Involved in acts that violate international human rights law or international humanitarian law, or that constitute human rights abuses or violations in the CAR.

4- Involved in acts involving sexual and gender-based violence in the CAR.

5- Recruiting or using children in armed conflict in the CAR.

6- Providing support for armed groups or criminal networks through the illicit exploitation in trade of nature resources, including diamonds, gold, wildlife, or wildlife products in or from the CAR.

7 – Obstructing the delivery of humanitarian assistance to the CAR, or access to, or distribution of humanitarian assistance in the CAR.

8- Involved in attacks against UN missions or international security presences.

9- Who are leaders of, or have supported or acted on behalf of or at the direction of a designated entity.

United Nations Security Council

The UNSC is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military actions through Security Council resolutions.

It is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolution to member states. The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, china and the united states- serve as the body’s five permanent members.

Theses permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for secretary-general.

The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.

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