The terrorism day to wean away the youth from terrorism - Seeker's Thoughts

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The terrorism day to wean away the youth from terrorism

The world has changed significantly in last century, and terrorism is the world which grabbed headlines constantly. The victims of terror remain often innocent people, women, kids and spiritual followers etc. 

Terrorism possess a significant threat to the world, and hardly there are places where you can escape it. The terrorism spread rapidly by the violence carried out by the ISIS and allied groups, Boko Haram in Nigeria, and Taliban in Afghanistan.

Though, there are other groups as well, but these are the deadliest terrorist groups in the world.

In 2017, more terrorist attacks happened in Iraq, but Afghanistan faced more causalities due to terrorist attacks.

Iraq is affected by ISIS, while Taliban threatens Afghanistan.

How does the world define a terrorism?

Terrorists are extremists’ figures, who are supported and hated in extreme. The problem is that there is no good definition of terrorism.

Terrorist attacks like suicide bomb blast, attack from bullets or keeping hostages are the most common ways for terrorist to create chaos among innocent people.

However, according to Wikipedia--

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants.

The one thing which is common across the world of terrorism is the large involvement of youth.

It can be seen that a large number of young people especially the age group of 20 to 35 years of age remain indulge in the deadliest terrorist attacks around the world. The internet has also played its part in recruitment of Tec savvy people young people.

Brainwashing the young blood by misleading information, for example- the religion is in danger often creates emotional disturbance among people, and perhaps they wish to be a hero. Instead of being hero and saving people, terrorists end up killing innocents, and they are brainwashed to the point that they do not even realise it.

Why do people become terrorists?

There are various reasons and arguments that why does the youth joins the terrorism? Is the poverty remain the leading cause? 
The answer is- one among the various reasons, the poverty is linked somewhere with the terrorism.

According to studies of University of Chicago, terrorism and poverty are directly linked to each other.

The nations suffering from poverty and have lack of educational facilities, are unable to understand that terrorism by no means is beneficial. The situation can be controlled by increasing development policies, and reducing unemployment rate.

Looking for a thrill: become a terrorist

Some people become terrorists just because they find it to be an entertaining and thrilling experience. Every day, we see news, and these are the sources to motivate the people to commit crimes, unfortunately.

Some teenagers and little kids are attracted towards terrorism as a part of fantasy. It is the fact teenager like games like PUBG, and killing is attractive for some.

Who I am?”- Don’t know yet? Become a terrorist

According to various reports, a total of 2032 foreign people who joined Al-Qaeda were the identity seekers.

Most of them are vulnerable to the society and are willing to prove themselves. Some of the youngsters want to know “Who am I”, and to get an answer, they commit crimes and become terrorists.

Seeking attention: Become a terrorist

Some of the young minds get inspired by the effectiveness of terrorism. They think that creating havoc can benefit them to seek attention rapidly.  

This attitude leads them to commit crimes on small or large scales.

Unwillingly Indulgence

It is true that many of the terrorists don’t join this field with their own wish. Internet has become common these days, and the news about terrorism groups go viral all the time. 

There are numerous unwilling indulgences involved that provoke the youngsters to become terrorists.

Reaction to Oppression

If you are not treated well, how will you react? Obviously, it is going to be something severe. Those who keep people oppressed will face the consequences. Keeping the people under burden will end in their improper behavior, leading them to act like criminals and terrorists.

Psychological Causes

Some of the psychological causes also pave the ways for terrorists. About 25% of terrorists have had grown in poor and bad environments, leading them to become mentally sick. As a result of this, they start committing crimes of different types, and tend to remove injustice from the societies.

Religious Conflicts

Religious conflicts play a vital role in someone’s life to make him live a positive or negative life. In case, you see that your religion is being disrespected, you will certainly react to control it. When it comes to religion, no one is ready to listen even a single word.

Communalism and extreme thoughts are the other major factor which works as fuel in the fire. youth are taught by the extremists’ religious preachers. 
They have been shown false videos and texts by evil preachers which developed more hatred in them for other group of religion or other community's groups. 

Moreover, they are being asked to kill innocent people in order to keep their faith alive and all this fight is on the name of religion.

Christchurch Call to Action Initiative

On May 15, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and French President Emmanuel Macron brought together government leaders and representatives of technology companies to announce the "Christchurch call of Action to Eliminate Terrorist and violent Extremist content online."

To curb online extremism by stopping abuse of Internet by extremists. It also calls for an open, free and secure internet to foster economic growth, enhance social inclusiveness and promote connectivity.

In response to the call Amazon, Facebook, Google, Twitter and Microsoft issued a joint statement. The companies also published nine steps they'll take to implement the Christchurch call.

The terrorist attacks in Christchurch, New Zealand, in March were a horrifying tragedy.

The Christchurch call announced to expands on the Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT), and build on our other initiatives and government and civil society to prevent the dissemination of terrorist and violent extremist content.
Sanctions on Iran 

A total of 18 countries including European Union (EU) supported the initiative Including India.

Where does India stand in terrorist attacks?

India was the third worst victim of terrorism according to the Centre for strategic & international Studies in 2017.

Terrorism in India can be classified into 4 categories-

Jammu and Kashmir militancy - After losing the initial battle in 1947 and later the wars of 1965 and 1971, Pakistan resorted to the tactics of low intensity warfare as it realised that it could not win over India in full scale direct war.

It has been actively supporting separatists and militant insurgency in Kashmir valley since late eighties.

Insurgency in North East - There are more than 100 tribal groups in the entire north-east region. The policies of Britishers resulted in their isolation from the rest of India.

Currently there are a number of young militant outfits having demands- checking illegal immigration from Bangladesh, separate statehood secession.

Left Wing extremism (Naxalism) - Originated from Naxalbari village in Darjeeling district of West Bengal.

It has spread to Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It aims to capture political power through armed struggle to install that so-called people's government.

Though India has various legal framework to handle terrorism but the reasons of terrorism can be curbed by the law, but can not be ended without social change.

Legal framework to tackle terrorism in India are, -

·       Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act

 Commonly known as TADA, was anti-terrorism law which was in force between 1985 and 1995 under the background of the Punjab insurgency and was applied to whole of India.

It came into effect on 23 May 1985. It was renewed in 1989, 1991 and 1993 before being allowed to lapse in 1995 due to increasing unpopularity after widespread allegations of abuse.

·       Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 (POTA)

 It was an Act passed by the Parliament in 2002, with the objective of strengthening anti-terrorism operations.

The Act was enacted due to several terrorist attacks that were being carried out in India and especially in response to the attack on the Parliament.

The Act replaced the Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance (POTO) of 2001 and the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act. The Act was repealed in 2004 by government.

At present, the legislations in force to check terrorism in India are the National Security Act, 1980 and the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. 

·       National Security Act, 1980

The National Security Act is a stringent law that allows preventive detention for months, if authorities are satisfied that a person is a threat to national security or law and order.

The grounds for preventive detention of a person include acting in any manner prejudicial to the defence of India, the relations of India with foreign powers, or the security of India.

Regulating the continued presence of any foreigner in India or with a view to making arrangements for his expulsion from India.

Preventing them from acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community it is necessary so to do.

·       Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967

Aimed at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India. Its main objective is to make powers available for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.

Though these mentioned laws help in preventing terrorism, but there are other steps which have been taken to reduce terrorism.

21st may declared as Anti-Terrorism Day in India

The university Grants Commission (UGC, the higher education regulator) has directed universities and higher educational institutions (HEIs) in India to observe 21 May as Anti-Terrorism Day so as to wean youth away from terrorism.

'21 May' marks the death anniversary of former India Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi who was assassinated in 1991 at an election rally near Chennai by a women suicide bomber from Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, a separatist Sri Lankan Tamil outfit).

The year 2019 mark 28th death anniversary of Late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.

Objective: To wean youth away from violence and terrorism, and showing them how it is prejudicial to national interest. It also seeks to promote harmony peace and unity across the nation.

UGC also suggested varsities to undertake activities for the day which includes discussions, symposium, debates, pledge taking ceremony and films screening as per the recommendations of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.

A way ahead

According to the centre for strategic & international studies, in 2017, the terrorism has reduced than 2016. However, there are more steps should be taken.

Terrorism and violent extremism are complex societal problems that require on all-of-society response.

At present the main threat of terrorism is due to the ‘usage of internet’. Therefore, all online giants like Facebook, twitter have should be committed to update the terms of use and community standards.

This is important to establish baseline expectation for users and to articulate a clear basis for removal of the content from several platforms and services and suspensions or closure of accounts distributing.

Establishing one or more methods within our online platforms and services for users to report or flag in inappropriate content, including terrorist and violent extremist content. However, these guidelines are often misused against the activities who fight against the social stigma and religious extremist.

The technology needs improved capabilities to detect and remove terrorist and violent extremist content online, including the extension or development of digital fingerprinting and AI-based technology solutions.

There has to be an appropriate check on livestreaming.

 aimed at reducing the risk of disseminating terrorist and violent extremist content online.

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